Blog 2: Introduction to ‘.in’ Domain

  • Demystifying ‘.in’ Domain

A Country-Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) is a two-letter string (eg: or added at the end of a Domain Name. The ‘.IN’ domain is India’s own ccTLD, a ccTLD functions as more than just a string in a web address, ccTLDs are considered a symbol of national identity, on the global internet. For a country like India with its demographic diversity, ccTLDs and IDNs work to inculcate a sense of belonging to the Internet ecosystem. Operations of ccTLDs are conducted by local managers, to address and adapt to national needs and interests. The ‘.in’ ccTLD as delegated by the Government of India is managed by the National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI). The ccTLD managers work to support the local internet ecosystem, by building trust and security, while building resilience and maintaining digital sovereignty. The ‘.IN’ Registry also offers Internationalised Domain Names (IDNs) in 15 scripts serving all 22 scheduled Indian languages this includes Arabic (.بھارت), Bengali (.ভারত),  Gujarati (.ભારત), Hindi (.भारत), Kannada (.ಭಾರತ), Malayalam (.ഭാരതം), Punjabi (.ਭਾਰਤ), Tamil (.இந்தியா), Telugu (.భారత్), and others.

  • Global Positioning

NIXI is the only registry in the world offering the highest number of IDN domains (15 ccTLDs) in all 22 scheduled Indian Languages. ‘.IN’ domain has solidified its position as a preferred choice for organisations and individuals operating within the Indian digital landscape. Recently, the ‘.in’ domain registrations have surpassed 4 million[1]. Thereby exceeding ‘.it’ domain registrations by 0.5 million users[2]. This remarkable growth catapults ‘.IN’ into the prestigious top 10 ccTLDs worldwide[3], signifying its increasing demand and recognition. This achievement is a testament to the teamwork of the NIXI team, our valued registrars, and the growing trust placed in the ‘.IN’ domain by the Indian community.

Additionally ‘.in’ is part of a larger network of ccTLDs, as it is the fourth most widely used ccTLD in the Asia-Pacific and accordingly engages extensively in supporting knowledge building and exchange of best practices. Beyond national management ‘.in’ actively contributes to the regional Asia-Pacific Top Level Domain Association as a member with an elected representative on the Board of Directors. NIXI under the patronage of the Ministry of Electronics and IT of India was host to the APTLD 85, in Goa, India. The forum works as a forum for information exchange regarding technological and operational issues of domain name registries in the Asia-Pacific region.

  • Democratisation of the Internet

India has seen an exponential growth in Internet users with an estimated 400,000 internet users in 1998 to over 820 million users in 2024. This growth trajectory has been enabled and supported by a multitude of factors including greater entrepreneurial spirit, policy reforms, structural economic changes and the development of institutional structures which gave required momentum to the Internet. The Internet, its availability and meaningful access, is something which can bring impact to millions while shaping and transforming how we interact with each other to create an open, stable, free, doable, interoperable, reliable, secure, inclusive, and sustainable environment. The ‘.in’ registry is instrumental in building the foundational key elements of the Internet, thereby harnessing responsible use of technology for inclusive growth.

  • Initiatives & its Impact

Besides working to democratise the Internet, NIXI through its distinctive initiatives is also working to provide meaningful access to the Internet in approximately 6 lakh villages across 29 states and 7 Union Territories through supportive collaboration with the Ministry of Culture, under the project “Mera Gaon Meri Dharohar” thereby enabling the digital identity both in ‘.in’ & ‘.भारत’ domain by creating exclusive zone ‘' and ‘एमजीएमडी.भारत’. A recent study suggested that nearly 50% of the current internet users belong to rural India[4], and such initiatives can further boost local engagement. It is also empowering MSMEs, which are considered as the engines of growth, with ‘.in’ Domain by collaborating with the Ministry of MSME enhancing the reach of their business to the grassroot level.

  • “.in” Prospects

The potential of ‘.in’ is reflected in the success stories showcased by a diverse set of users from college students, to founders in the startup ecosystem, and even well-established businesses. One such example is how any homegrown platform, sharing locally garnered or curated information can be provided with the requisite platform to reach relevant and wider audiences in their native languages while maintaining its access to the global internet ecosystem. The ‘.in’ domain provides trust, security, improved access to markets, reduced transaction costs, and sustained and accelerated growth in one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. Further, ‘.in’ serves as a gateway to the internet, by building a local anchor which paves the way for secure global access.


[1] ‘.IN’ has reported 4.07 million domain registrations as of 31st March 2024

[2] ‘.IT’ has reported 3.5 million domain registrations as of 01 April 2024

[3] As seen via the most recent Domain Name Industry Brief quarterly report, (February 14, 2024). However, there are certain reports/estimates that place ‘.tk’, ‘.ga’, ‘gq’, and ‘.ml’ among the top 10 ccTLDs globally but the Domain Industry Brief has taken a decision “to exclude the .tk, .cf, .ga, .gq and .ml ccTLDs from the applicable data set and trend calculations, due to an unexplained change in available estimates for the .tk zone size and lack of verification from the registry operator for these TLDs”.